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1-Position for inspection in scrotal swelling?-In standing position.


2-Why examination of scrotal swelling is done in standing position?

     -Because direct hernia and varicocele may be totally missed in lying down position if hernia is present   its full extent can be seen only in standing position.


3-Points to be taken care in inspection scrotal swelling

    Swelling isUnilateral or bilateral, scrotal or inguinal-scrotal, its relation  to testis, epidedymis, spermatic      cord and penis, also its  shape, surface, size, overlying skin, cough impulse.


3-Points of inspection in case of overlying skin?

     i-Rugosity,ii- redness, iii-oedema,iv- excoriation,v- vesicles, vi-blackening, vii-ulcers,viii- sinus,   ix-scar.


4-Define Fournier’s gangrene.-It is idiopathic gangrene of scrotal skin secondary to infection and cellulitis.


5-Where the cough impulse is to be noted?-Along the line of  the inguinal canal.

6- How to differentiate scrotal swelling and inguino-scrotal swelling by palpation?When  during palpation the top of swelling  is reached it suggestive of scrotal swelling, if cannot it is suggestive of inguinal-scrotal swelling.


7-What are the points to be tested in case of cystic swelling?

     Fluctuation, Transillumination, Reducibility, Cough impulse.

8-Define Transillumination.-It is the demonstration of light through the swelling.


9-Precautions during transillumination in scrotal swelling?

       -Don’t place the torch posteriorly where the testis will block the light and if the skin is thin or swelling  is small, test normal skin illumination, so it is not mistaken with transillumination.




10- In which case transillumination is negative?

      -Opaque fluid, haemotocele, pyocele, chylocele, opaque or thick wall, long standing hydrocele.


11-Which scrotal swelling cannot be reduced?- Hydrocele., Teratoma,


12-Which is reducible scrotal swelling?-Varicocele, congenital hydrocele.enterocele


13-Which is abnormal  hard or soft cord structures can be felt on palpation?

        -Nodular vas deferens(Beaded) suggest tuberculosis, Bag of worms suggest varicocele.


14-Points of palpation in scrotal swelling

-Temperature, Tenderness, Corded structures, testis ,epididymis, surface, consistency of swelling, B/L equality ,

15- Hydrocele in female occurs ? Where? –Yes, Lab. Majora,



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