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assignment 1


1.         Define Ulcer.-It Is The Break In The Continuity Of Tissue And Epithelium.


2.         Types of Ulcer?

Varicose Ulcer,  Rodent Ulcer, Ischemic Ulcer, Tuberculous Ulcer, Trophic Ulcer


3.         Site of Varicose Ulcer?-On The Medial Aspect of Lower Third of Legs.

4.         Site of Rodent Ulcer?-Area of Face above the Line Joining the Angle of Mouth and Ear Lobule.


5.         Site of Tuberculous Ulcer?-on The Neck in the Side of Tuberculous Lymphadenopathy.


6.         Site of Trophic Ulcer?-On The Weight Bearing Area over THE Heel or Sacrum in Bed Ridden Patient.


7.         Site of Ischemic Ulcer?--On The Dorsum of Foot and Toes.


8.     Define The Margin Of Ulcer?--It Is The Border Or Transitional Zone Of Skin Around The Ulcer.

9.         What Is The Look Of Healing Ulcer?

-White-Outer area.,               -Blue-Central area,                 -Red-Inner area

10.     Why The Margin Of Ulcer Looks Blue?-Because Of Squamous Epithelium without Cornification.


11.     Why The Margin Of Ulcer Looks Red?-because Of Red Color of the Underlying Granulation Tissue.


12.     Why The Margin Of Ulcer Looks White?-Due to Newly Cornfined Epithelium.


13.     In Which Type Of Ulcer Is Inflamed Margin Present?--Spreading Type of Ulcer.


14.     In Which Type of Ulcer Is Fibrosed Margin Present?--In Fibrosed Ulcer.


15.     Types of Margin?-Healing Margin, Inflamed, Fibrosed.


16.     Define The Edge Of The Ulcer.

A.   It Is The Mode Of Union Between The Floor & Margin Of Ulcer.


17.     Types Of The Edge Of The Ulcer?

A.   Sloping Edge, Punched Edge, Everted Edge, inverted,and Raised Edge.


18.     In Which Type Of Ulcer There Is Sloping Edge?-Healing Ulcer.


19.     In Which Type Of Ulcer There Is Punched Edge?--Trophic Ulcer.


20.     In Which Type of Ulcer There Is Undermined Edge?-Tuberculous Ulcer.


21.     In Which Type Of Ulcer There Is Everted Edge?--Malignant Ulcer.


22.     In Which Type Of Ulcer There Is Raised Edge?-Rodent Ulcer.


23.     Why Healing Ulcer have a Sloping Edge?

A.   In A Healing Ulcer The Healthy Granulation Over The Floor Are Slightly Below The Skin Surface So Skin Is Sloping Down To It.

24.     Why There Is Punched Edge In Trophic Ulcer?

A.   Tissue Destruction Is Same In All Planes From Skin To Bone So The Ulcer Is Deep With Vertical Edge As If The Tissue Has Been Punched Out.


25.     Why There Is Undermined Edge In Tuberculous Ulcer?

A.   The Tissue Destruction Is More In Subcutaneous Plane Than The Skin And Thus Skin Overhangs At The Edge.


26.     Why There Is Everted Edge In Malignant Ulcer?

A.   Tissue Grows Very Fast and Overhangs the Skin.


27.     Define The Floor Of Ulcer.

A.   It Is The Exposed Surface Of The Ulcer.


28.     What Is To Be Examined In The Floor Of Ulcer?

A.   Granulation Tissue, Slough and Discharge.


29.     Define Slough In Ulcer.

A.   It Is Necrotic Soft Tissue Not Yet Separated From Living Tissue.


30.     Appearance of Surrounding Skin in Spreading Ulcer.

A.   It Is Shiny, Red And Edematous Due To Cellulites.


31.     Appearance of the Surrounding Skin in Varicose Ulcer.

A.   It Is Dark Pigmentated, And Eczema Is Present Surrounding The Ulcer.


32.     Appearance of the Surrounding Skin in Tuberculous Ulcer.

A.   Multiple Scars and Puckering Of the Skin Surrounding the Ulcer In Neck.


33.     Appearance of the Surrounding Skin in Non-Healing Ulcer.

A.   Hypo-Pigmentation Surrounding the Skin.


34.     Appearance of Marjolin’s Ulcer.

A.   Ulcer with Large Scar Suggests Marjolin’s Ulcer.


35.     Points of Inspection of Ulcer?

A.   Size and Shape, Number, Location, Margin and Edges, Floor, Surrounding Skin.


36.     Points of Palpation in Ulcer?

A.   Surrounding Skin-Temperature And Tenderness, Ulcer-Edge, Floor And Base, Test The Fixity.


37.     Indication of Inflammation in Ulcer?

A.   Temperature And Tenderness Are Suggestive Of Inflammation In Ulcer.


38.     Character of Edge in Healing Ulcer?--Soft.


39.     Character of Edge in Non-Healing Ulcer?-Firm.


40.     Character of Edge in Malignant Ulcer?- Hard.


41.     Sign of Granulation Tissue on Palpation?

A.   Healthy Granulation Tissue-Pinpoint Hemorrhagic Spots on Touch. Malignant Ulcer-Bleeds Profusely.


42.   Define The Base Of Ulcer.-It Is The Tissue On Which The Ulcer Rests.


43.   How to Palpate the Base of Ulcer?-In Small Ulcer Pinch It Up And Palpate The Base Between The Fingers, In Large Ulcers- Base Has To Be Felt Over The Floor Of Ulcer With Glove Finger.


44.     How to Note the Fixity of Ulcer?-By Moving The Ulcer From Side To Side.


45.     Points of Focal Examination In An Ulcer?

A.   Regional Lymphnodes, State Of Arteries, Veins, Circulation N Nerves, Movements Of Neighboring Joints.


46.     Character of Lymph nodes In Malignant Ulcer?

A.   Hard, Discreet & Non Tender.


47.     Character of Lymph nodes In Infective Ulcer?-Soft & Tender.


48.     Character of Lymph nodes In Tuberculous Ulcer?-Non Tender & Matted.


49.     What Is The State Of Nerves In Focal Examination Of Ulcer?

A.   Sensation Of Nerves Is Diminished In Trophic Ulcer.


50.     What Is The State Of Veins In Focal Examination Of Ulcer?

A.   Varicose Vein Are Present In Varicose Ulcer, Also Calf Tenderness May Be Present In Deep Vein Thrombosis.


51.     Indicative Features of Leprosy In Case Of Trophic Ulcer?

A.   Thickened Greater Auricular Nerves, Hypo pigmented Anesthetic Patches, Leonine Face.


52.     What Does The Restrictive Movement Of Joint Indicates In Ulcer?

A.    It Indicates Muscle Or Tendon Involvement.


53.     What Is To Be Examined In Systemic Examination Of Ulcer?

A.      Cvs-Congestive Cardiac Failure’s- Tb. Abdomen-Spleenomegaly, Haemolytic Anemia In Leg Ulcer.


























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